People with the Epsilon(e)4 Variant of the Apolipoprotein-E Gene More Likely to Develop Alzheimer’s Disease
A gene associated with Alzheimer’s disease and recovery after brain injury may show its effects on the brain and thinking skills as early as childhood, according to a study published in the online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.
“Studying these genes in young children may ultimately give us early indications of who may be at risk for dementia in the future and possibly even help us develop ways to prevent the disease from occurring or to delay the start of the disease,” said study author Linda Chang, MD, of the University of Hawaii in Honolulu and a Fellow of the American Academy of Neurology.
For the study, 1,187 children ages three to 20 years had genetic tests and brain scans and took tests of thinking and memory skills. The children had no brain disorders or other problems that would affect their brain development, such as prenatal drug exposure.
Each person receives one copy of the gene (e2, e3 or e4) from each parent, so there are six possible gene variants: e2e2, e3e3, e4e4, e2e3, e2e4 and e3e4.
The study found that children with any form of the e4 gene had differences in their brain development compared to children with e2 and e3 forms of the gene.
The differences were seen in areas of the brain that are often affected by Alzheimer’s disease.
In children with the e2e4 genotype, the size of the hippocampus, a brain region that plays a role in memory, was approximately 5 percent smaller than the hippocampi in the children with the most common genotype (e3e3). Children younger than 8 and with the e4e4 genotype typically had lower measures on a brain scan that shows the structural integrity of the hippocampus.
“These findings mirror the smaller volumes and steeper decline of the hippocampus volume in the elderly who have the e4 gene,” Chang said.
Some of the children with e4e4 or e4e2 genotype also had lower scores on some of the tests of memory and thinking skills.
Specifically, the youngest e4e4 children had up to 50 percent lower scores on tests of executive function and working memory, while some of the youngest e2e4 children had up to 50 percent lower scores on tests of attention. However, children older than 8 with these two genotypes had similar and normal test scores compared to the other children.
I imagine people now running off to have their genes analyzed. This is a good study only if there is something that can be done once discovered. Living in unnecessary fear your whole life is probably not the best way to live.
Athletes May Have White Matter Brain Changes Six Months After a Concussion
New research finds white matter changes in the brains of athletes six months after a concussion. The study was presented at the 2016 Sports Concussion Conference in Chicago in July. The study involved 17 high school and college football players who experienced a sports-related concussion. The participants underwent MRI brain scans and were assessed for concussion symptoms, balance problems, and cognitive impairment, or memory and thinking problems, at 24 hours, eight days and six months following the concussion. Researchers also assessed 18 carefully matched athletes who had not experienced a concussion.
At all time points, all participants had advanced brain scans to look for acute and chronic changes to the brain’s white matter. Those who had concussions had less water movement, or diffusion, in the acute stages following concussion (24 hours, six days) compared to those who did not have concussions. These changes still persisted six months after the injury. Also, those who had more severe symptoms at the time of the concussion were more likely to have alterations in the brain’s white matter six months later.
Despite those findings, there was no difference between the group of athletes with and without concussion with regard to self-reported concussion symptoms, cognition, or balance at six months post-injury. “In other words, athletes may still experience long-term brain changes even after they feel they have recovered from the injury. These findings have important implications for managing concussions and determining recovery in athletes who have experienced a sports-related concussion,” said study author Melissa Lancaster, PhD, of the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee.
Meditation for Seniors – Good for the Mind and Soul
As doctors, researchers, and family members search for ways to improve the quality of life for people with dementia, the answer may lie in the quiet. Yoga and meditation has increasing been shown in research as a way to improve symptoms and even delay onset of dementia, including Alzheimer’s. Read more.